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Showing posts with label Clause. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Clause. Show all posts

Friday, November 8, 2013

Types of Clauses

Types of Clauses

There are two major types of clauses main (or independent) clause and subordinate (or dependant) clause.

 Main Clause and Subordinate Clause – Comparison

 He is buying a shirt which looks very nice.

The above sentence has two clauses “He is buying a shirt” and “which looks very nice”. The clause “He is buying a shirt” expresses a complete thought and can alone stand as a sentence. Such a clause is called main or independent clause.

While the clause “which looks very nice” does not express a complete thought and can’t stand as a sentence. It depends on another clause (main clause) to express complete idea. Such a clause is called subordinate or dependent clause.

Main or Independent Clause  

“Main (or independent) clause is a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand as a sentence.

Examples
            I met the boy who had helped me.
            She is wearing a shirt which looks nice.
            The teacher asked a question but no one answered.
            He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
            He became angry and smashed the vase into peaces.

In the above sentences each underlined part shows main clause. It expresses complete though and can stand as a sentence that is why a main or an independent clause is normally referred as a simple sentence.

Subordinate or dependent Clause

Subordinate (or independent) clause is a clause which does not express complete thought and depends on another clause (main clause) to express complete thought. Subordinate clause does not express complete idea and can’t stand as a sentence. A sentence having a subordinate clause must have a main clause.

Example
           He likes Chinese rice which tastes good.

The clause “which tastes good” in above sentence is a subordinate clause because it does not express complete thought and can’t stand as a sentence. It depends on main clause (he likes Chinese rise) to express complete thought.

Examples.
              I met the boy who had helped me.
              I bought a table that costs $ 100.
              He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
              The teacher asked a question but no one answered.

Subordinate (or dependent) clauses are further divided into tree types,
1. Noun Phrase, 2. Adjective Phrase, 3. Adverb Phrase

Types of Subordinate Clause

Types of Subordinate Clause
 Functions of Subordinate Clause.

A subordinate (dependent) clause may function as a noun, an adjective or an adverb in sentence. On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to following types.

   1. Noun Clause
   2. Adjective Clause.
   3. Adverb Clause

Noun Clause

   “A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun clause.”
A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.

Example
        What he did made a problem for his family.

In above sentence the clause “what he did” functions as a noun, hence it is a noun clause. A noun clause works as a noun that acts as a subject, object, or predicate in a sentence. A noun clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever”.

Examples
          Whatever you learn will help you in future.     (noun clause as a subject)
          What you said made me laugh.                        (noun clause as a subject)
          He knows that he will pass the test.               (noun clause as an object)
          Now I realize what he would have thought.    (noun clause as an object)

Adjective Clause

       “A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause.”     
An adjective clause works like adjective in a sentence. The function of an adjective is to modify (describe) a noun or a pronoun. Similarly a noun clause modifies a noun or  a pronoun.

Example
He wears a shirt which looks nice.

The clause “which looks nice” in above sentence is an adjective clause because it modifies noun “shirt” in the sentence.
An adjective clause always precedes the noun it modifies.

Examples.
               I met the boy who had helped me.
               An apple that smells bad is rotten.
               The book which I like is helpful in preparation for test.
               The house where I live consists of four rooms.
               The person who was shouting needed help.

Adjective clause begins with relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which, or whose) and is also relative clause.

Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

                Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause. A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun. A nonrestrictive clause tells us something about preceding noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun.

Example

•The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause)
 
•The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the      test.                      (nonrestrictive clause)

In the first sentence the clause “who studied a lot” restrict information to preceding noun(student), it means that there is only one student in the class who studied a lot, hence it is a restrictive clause.

In the second sentence the clause “who had attended all the lectures” gives us information about preceding noun but does not limit this information to the preceding noun. It  means there can be several other students in the class who had attended all the lectures.

A comma is always used before a restrictive clause in a sentence and also after nonrestrictive clause if it is within a main clause. “That” is usually used to introduce a restrictive clause while “which” is used to introduce a nonrestrictive clause.

Example
           The table that costs $ 100 is made of steel.             (restrictive clause)
           The table, which costs $ 100, is made of steel.        (nonrestrictive clause)

Adverb Clause

    “A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called adverb clause”
An adverb clause like an adverb modifies a verb, adjective clause or other adverb clause in a sentence. It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in terms of “time, frequency (how often),  cause and effect, contrast, condition, intensity (to what extent).”

The subordinating conjunctions used for adverb clauses are as follows.

Time: when, whenever, since, until, before, after, while, as, by the time, as soon as
Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as long as, so, so that,
Contrast: although, even, whereas, while, though
Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing or provided that, in case

Examples.
          Don’t go before he comes.
          He takes medicine because he is ill.
          Although he tried a lot, he couldn’t climb up the tree.
          Unless you study for the test, you can’t pass it.
          I will go to the school unless it rains.     
          You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
          You can achieve anything provided that you struggle for it.

Phrase and Clause

Phrase and Clause
Comparison
 Definitions

A clause is defined as a group of related words that contains a subject and predicate (verb).
e.g. he came.

 A phrase is defined as a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb.
e.g. on the table.

Consider the following example.

He is laughing at a joker.
The above sentence has two parts “he is laughing” and “at a joker”.

The first part of the sentence “he is laughing” is a clause because it has a subject (he) and a predicate (is laughing).

The second part of the sentence “at a joker” is a phrase because it does not contain subject and verb.

The difference  between a clause and a phrase is that a clause consists of both subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a subject and verb.

Examples.

The underlined part of each of following sentences shows a clause, while the rest part (non-underlined) of each sentence shows a phrase.

         He reached school in time.
         I was standing near a wall.
         They are singing in a loud voice.
         She made tea for the guests.
         He a bought a book for his friend.
         I will meet him in my office.
         You look handsome in this picture.

Clause

Clause
            “A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate”
For example, he laughed.

A clause refers to a group of related words (within a sentence or itself as an independent sentence) which has both subject and predicate.

Example
            I will meet him in office.

The part of above sentence “I will meet him” is a clause because it has a subject(I) and a predicate(will meet him). On the other hand, the rest part of above sentence “in office” lacks both subject and predicate(verb) such group of word is called phrase.

A clause may stand as a simple sentence or may join another clause to make a sentence. Therefore, a sentence consists of one, two or more clauses.

Examples.

        • He is sleeping.                                                                (one clause)
        • The kids were laughing at the joker.                              (one clause)
        • The teacher asked a question, but no one answered.   (two clauses)
        • I am happy, because I won a prize.                               (two clauses)
        • I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology,
           because he wants to become a doctor.                         (three clauses)

Clauses are divided into main clause (also called independent clause) and subordinate clause (also called dependent clauses). 

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