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Showing posts with label Baggage X-Ray Mchines. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Baggage X-Ray Mchines. Show all posts

Thursday, April 4, 2013

Working Principle of Rapi Scan 527/528


Working Principle of Rapi Scan 527/528
As son as an object enter the inspection chamber and cut off the beam of infrared rays made by OSM (Optical Sensor Module) it is suddenly transmitted to System Control Board and System Control Board Command the X-Ray controller to turn the X-Rays on.
When X-Ray are turned on, it starts scanning the object some x-rays pass through the object , some are absorbed and some are scattered in different directions according to the density of object. After passing through the object , X-Rays are detected by LXDA (Liner x-Ray Detector Array/ Diode) board which converts these X-Rays signal into digital signal and send these signal to Main  Computer Memory  where after normalization and processing with the help of SVGA (Super Video Graphic Adopter) these signal are converted into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.
st Image Processor). HIP Board these converted these digital signals into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.
urity measures to protect Departure Lounge/Aircraft Cabin. All Articles which can be used to commit an act of unlawful interference are prohibited to carry beyond this point.

Working Principle of Working Principle of Lian Scan LS-215/LS-237/LS-107


Working Principle of Working Principle of Lian Scan LS-215/LS-237/LS-107
As son as an object enter the inspection chamber and cut off the beam of infrared rays made by OSM (Optical Sensor Module) it is suddenly transmitted to System Control Board and System Control Board Command the X-Ray controller to turn the X-Rays on.
When X-Ray are turned on, it starts scanning the object some x-rays pass through the object , some are absorbed and some are scattered in different directions according to the density of object. After passing through the object , X-Rays are detected by LXDA (Liner x-Ray Detector Array/ Diode) board which converts these X-Rays signal into analog signal and send these signal to ADC (Analog to Digital Converter),ADC  board converts these analog signals to digital signals and send tese signals to DTP (Dtat Transfer Processor)  where these digital signals are arranged in a sequence and then sent to HIP (Host Image Processor). HIP Board these converted these digital signals into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.
urity measures to protect Departure Lounge/Aircraft Cabin. All Articles which can be used to commit an act of unlawful interference are prohibited to carry beyond this point.

Working Principle of Lian Scan-PX-107/PX-ACX 6.4


Working Principle of Lian Scan-PX-107/PX-ACX 6.4
As son as an object enter the inspection chamber and cut off the beam of infrared rays made by OSM (Optical Sensor Module) it is suddenly transmitted to System Control Board and System Control Board Command the X-Ray controller to turn the X-Rays on.
When X-Ray are turned on, it starts scanning the object some x-rays pass through the object , some are absorbed and some are scattered in different directions according to the density of object. After passing through the object , X-Rays are detected by LXDA (Liner x-Ray Detector Array/ Diode) board which converts these X-Rays signal into digital signal and send these signal to Main  Computer Memory  where after normalization and processing with the help of SVGA (Super Video Graphic Adopter) these signal are converted into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.

Working Principle of Hi-Scan 6040-i/9075


Working Principle of Hi-Scan 6040-i/9075
As son as an object enter the inspection chamber and cut off the beam of infrared rays made by Light Barriers it is suddenly transmitted to System Control Board and System Control Board Command the X-Ray controller to turn the X-Rays on.
When X-Ray are turned on, it starts scanning the object some x-rays pass through the object , some are absorbed and some are scattered in different directions according to the density of object. After passing through the object , X-Rays are detected by LXDA (Liner x-Ray Detector Array/ Diode) board which converts these X-Rays signal into digital signal and send these signal to Hi-Trax Computer, where after normalization and processing with the help of SVGA (Super Video Graphic Adopter) these signal are converted into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.

Working Principle of Astrophysics XIS-100-X/7858


Working Principle of Astrophysics XIS-100-X/7858
As son as an object enter the inspection chamber and cut off the beam of infrared rays made by PEC (Photo Emission Controller), it is suddenly transmitted to PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PLC Command the X-Ray controller to turn the X-Rays on.
When X-Ray are turned on, it starts scanning the object some x-rays pass through the object , some are absorbed and some are scattered in different directions according to the density of object. After passing through the object , X-Rays are detected by LXDA (Liner x-Ray Detector Array/ Diode) board which converts these X-Rays signal into analog signal and send these signal to Data Acquisition System (DAS) board , DAS board converts these analog signals into digital signal and sent these signal into man memory of computer where after normalization and processing with the help of SVGA (Super Video Graphic Adopter) these signal are converted into video signals and sent to VDU (Video Display Unit) as an image.
sup> Priority is weapon / ammunition to look for in an image.

Threat Classification


Threat Classification
While interpreting X-Ray images an image needs to be classified in following one of three categories.

1.       No Threat
If item and its contents pose no threat and containing no weapon, explosive device or any other threat object then it will be categorized No Threat.

2.       Potential Threat.
If items pr its contents pose a possible threat, something indicates that threat my be persent and needs to be examined further or operator cannot identify the object positively then it will be remedial action will be to refer the bag for manual /Physical Search.

3.       Oblivious threat
If clear threat exists and operator can clearly identify the threat object (Ammunition, weapons, IEDs) in an image, then it will be classified is oblivious threat.
Remedial action will be to call for assistance. 

Screening Standard is set by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)


Screener Standard
Screening Standard is set by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)
Section 4.1.1 of Annex-17 ICAO manual states:
“Each Contracting State shall establish measures to prevent weapons, explosive or any other dangerous devices , articles or substance , which may be used to commit an act unlawful interference , the carriage or bearing of which is not authorized , from being introduced by any means whatsoever , on board an aircraft engaged in civil aviation. 

IED (Improvised Explosive Device)


IED (Improvised Explosive Device)
A homemade Explosive Device, which can be easily concealed in an item of daily use apparently, seems and having, resemblance with its surrounding is called IED.

An IED Consists of 04x main components
                                 i.            Initiator /Igniter
                               ii.            Delay Device
                              iii.            Blasting Cap/ Detonator.
                             iv.            Main charge
IEDs Falls into following 03x categories
                                 i.            Packge Type IED
                               ii.            Vehicle Born IED (VBIED)
                              iii.            Personal-Born IED (PBIED)


Chain of Detonation/ Explosive Train


Chain of Detonation/ Explosive Train

Initiator /Igniter 
It is used initiate the detonation sequence e.g Flame, Friction, Striker, Chemical etc. 

Delay Device 
It is device to provide required delay. e.g safety fuse, clock, timer, switch, remote control, etc. Switches are four i.e Push Switch, Pull Switch, Push to release, Pull to Release Switch. 

Blasting Cap/ Detonator. 
A Detonator is a device , Consisting of primary high Explosive , used to trigger an explosive device. Detonator can be chemically, mechanically or electrically initiated, the latter two being the most common. Detonators are of two type i.e Electrical & non Electrical. 

Booster. 
When amount of main charge is very huge a booster is used between blasting Cap and main charge. Blasting Cap detonates the booster and then booster further detonates the main charge (For huge blast only other wise not required) 

Main charge 
Insensitive High Explosive or Secondary High Explosive Sometime mixed with low Explosive is used as Main Charge e.g TNT, RDX, PETN Dynamite etc.

Explosive


Explosive

It is a chemically unstable material which is when suitably initiated, change its chemical composition rearranging its molecules to become stable from an unstable structure, resulting intense pressure on its surrounding with a simultaneous evolution of great amount of heat and gases causing destruction.

i.                  









Low explosive

An explosive whose velocity of detonation is less than 331 m/s (Speed of Sound) is called low explosive. When initiated, chemical reaction is comparatively slow. Low explosive are mostly solid combustible materials that decomposed rapidly, but do not normally explode. This action is known as deflationary  Black powder, smoke powder, Gun powder and carbide are example of low explosive.




ii. High Explosive
An explosive whose velocity of detonation is more than 331 m/s (Speed of Sound) is called High explosive. . When initiated, chemical reaction is very fast. When initiated by a blow or shock, it decomposes almost instantaneously
TNT (Tri Nitro Toluene) RDX, (Research Departmental Explosive), C-4 (Composition-4), PETN (Penta  Erythritol Tetra Nitrate), NG (Nitro Glycerin), ANFO (Ammonium Nitro Fuel Oil), TATP (Tri Acetone Tri Per Oxide) SEMTEX (Plastic Explosive) High Explosive Further Divided into two Groups.

a. Primary High Explosive.

A Primary High Explosive is an explosive that is extremely to stimuli such as impact. Friction, heat static electricity or electromagnetic radiation. A relatively small amount of energy is required for initiation . e.g Lead Azide, Led Styphnate , Silver Azide, Mercury Fulminate, Mercury Nitride, Nitro Glycerin ,PETN. 






b. Secondary High Explosive 
A secondary High Explosive is less sensitive than a primary explosive and require substantially more energy to be initiated. Because they are less sensitive are usable in a wider variety of applications and are safer to handle and store. Secondary Explosive are used in larger quantities in an explosive train and are usually initiated by a smaller quantity of primary explosive. e.g TNT,RDX,C-4,SEMTEX.

Dangrous Goods.


Dangrous Goods.
Dagrous goods are defines as those goods which meet the criteria of one or more of nine United Nations Hazrads classes and where applicable , to ne of three united nation Packing Groups according to the provisions.
Dangrous goods are classified into 09x classes in accordance to the optional risk associated with them while transporting by Air.

1.       Explosive
2.       Gasses
3.       Flammable Liquid
4.       Flammable Solid
5.       Oxidizing Substance and organic per Oxides
6.       Toxic and infectious Substance
7.       Radio Active Material
8.       Corrosive
9.       Miscellanea Dangerous Goods.

Dangerous Goods are divided into 03x Unite Nation Packing Group.
1.       UN Packing Group-I        (To Pack the items presenting High Danger)
2.       UN Packing Group-II       (To Pack the items presenting Medium Danger)
3.       UN Packing Group-III     (To Pack the items presenting Low Danger)

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