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Showing posts with label PHRASES. Show all posts
Showing posts with label PHRASES. Show all posts

Sunday, February 2, 2014

Adjective Phrases

1. Adjective Phrases
14. We have seen that sometimes a group of words does the work of an adjective (§ 3).
Now examine the following pairs of sentences:-
1. (a) The vizier was a wealthy man.
(b) The vizier was a man of great wealth.
2. (a) The magistrate was a kind man.
(b) The magistrate was a man with a kindly nature.
3. (a) The chief lived in a stone house.
(b)The chief lived in a house built of stone.
4. (a) I like to see a smiling face.
(b) I like to see a face with a smile on it.
5. (a) The coolies belonged to a hill tribe.
(b) The coolies belonged to a tribe dwelling in the hills.
In each of the above pairs of sentences, we have first a single word describing the person
or thing denoted by the noun, and then a group of words describing the person or thing
denoted by the same noun.
For instance, the group of words of great wealth tells us what sort of man the vizier was.
It qualifies the noun man just as an Adjective does. It therefore does the work of an
Adjective and is called an Adjective Phrase.
Def:- An Adjective Phrase is a group of words that does the work of an Adjective.
15.Study the following Adjectives and the Adjective Phrases that are equivalent to them:-
Adjectives -- Adjective Phrases
A golden crown. -- A crown made of gold.
A purple cloak. -- A cloak of purple colour.
A white elephant. -- An elephant with a white skin.
A jungle track. -- A track through the jungle.
A blue-eyed boy. -- A boy with blue eyes.
A deserted village. -- A village without any inhabitants.
A blank page. -- A page with no writing on it.
The longest day. -- The day of greatest length.
The Spanish flag. -- The flag of Spain.
A heavy load. -- A load of great weight.
Exercise 8.
Pick out the Adjective Phrases, in the following sentences:-
1. A man in great difficulties came to me for help.
2. He is a person of very considerable renown.
3. Wild beasts in small cages are a sorry sight.
4. A man without an enemy is a man with few friends.
5. He tells a tale with the ring of truth in it.
6. A friend in need is a friend in deed.
7. A stitch in time saves nine.
8. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
9. Gardens with cool shady trees surround the village.
10. Only a man with plenty of money buys a car of such beauty and power.
11. In a low voice he told the tale of his cruel wrongs.
12. Do you know the story of the noble Padmini?
13. He was a lad of great promise.
14. He bore a banner with a strange device.
15. The police arrested a man of one of the criminal tribes.
Exercise 9.
In each of the following sentences replace the Adjective in italics by an Adjective Phrase
of the same meaning:-
1. A grey cloud spread over the sky.
2. He dwelt in a wooden hut.
3. He had a bald head.
4. She wore a diamond necklace.
5. It was a horrible night.
6. They went by Siberian railway.
7. A grassy meadow stretched before us.
8. An earthen pitcher stood on a three-legged table.
9. The French flag flew at the top of the highest mast.
10. That was a cowardly act.
11. He is well.
12. A valuable ring was found yesterday.
13. Heroic deeds deserve our admiration.
14. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery.
15. Numerical superiority is a great advantage.
16. The Rajputs were passionately fond of martial glory.
17. I have passed two sleepless nights.
18. He is a professional cricketer.
19. This book contains many biblical quotations.
20. She wants medical advice.
21. A tall soldier stepped forth.
Exercise 10.
Replace each of the following Adjective Pharoses in italics by an Adjective of the same
He wore a turban made of silk.
He has done a deed of shame.
He led a life devoid of blame.
He had a bold held.
It was a horrible night.
They went by Siberian railway.
I met a little girl from a cottage.
Balu was a man with plenty of impudence.
From this village in the mountains came a chieftain of a great fame.
The Rajput leader was a soldier full of hope and free from fear.
Nelson was a boy without fear.
Nobody likes a person with a bad temper.
I admit that he is a man of sense.
The tops of the mountains were covered with snow.
He is an author of great versatility.
It is of no use.
Note:- Not all Adjective Phrases can be replaced by Adjectives, for instance :
He never felt the witchery of the soft blue sky.
Exercise 11.
Fill in the blanks with suitable Adjective Phrases:-
1. An elephant --- is considered searched by some people.
2. Birds --- flock together.
3. He leads a life ---.
4. Children like books ---.
5. He lost a diamond ---.
6. The old sage spoke words ---.
7. She is a woman ---.
8. John Gilpin was a citizen ---.
9. Draw a picture ---.
10. The leaves --- are glossy.
11. He heard the sound ---.
12. Listen to the sound ---.
13. The verdict --- was in his favour.
14. The doors --- closed upon him.
15. The water --- is very deep.
16. The road --- is very muddy.
17. The proprietor --- died yesterday,
18. The paths --- lead but to the grave.
Exercise 12.
Write five sentences containing Adjective Phrases.
II. Adverb Phrases
16. Just as the work of an Adjective is often done by a group of words called an
Adjective Phras.3, so the work of an Adverb is often done by a group of words.
Study the following pairs of sentences carefully:-
1. (a) Rama ran quickly. (How?)
(b) Rama ran with great speed. (How?)
2. (a) He answered rudely. (How?)
(b) He answered in a very rude manner. (How?)
3. (a) He does his work carelessly. (How?)
(b) He does his work without any care. (How?)
4. (a) He is coming now (When?)
(b) He is coming at this very moment. (When?)
5. (a) No such diseases were known then. (When?)
(b) No such diseases were known in those days. (When?)
6. (a) The arrow fell here. (Where?)
(b) The arrow fell on this spot. (Where?)
7. (a) You can buy it everywhere. (Where?)
(b) You can buy it in all places. (Where?)
8. (a) He fell down. (Where?)
(b) He fell to the ground. (Where?)
In each of the above pairs of sentences we have first a single word (an Adverb)
modifying a verb, and then a group of words modifying a verb in the same way.
For instance, the group of words with great speed tells us how Rama ran. It modifies the
verb ran just as the Adverb quickly does. It therefore does the work of an Adverb and is
called an Adverb Phrase.
Def:- An Adverb Phrase is a group of words that does the work of an Adverb.
Note:- An Adverb Phrase, like an Adverb, may modify also an Adjective or Adverb: as,
Quinine is good for malaria.
I have done well on the whole.
17. Study the following Adverbs and the Adverb Phrases that are equivalent to them.
Adverbs -- Adverb Phrases
Bravely -- In a brave manner, or with bravery.
Unwisely -- In an unwise manner, or without wisdom.
Swiftly -- In a swift manner, or with swiftness.
Beautifully -- In a beautifully style.
Formerly -- In former times, or once upon a time.
Recently -- Just now, or at a recent date.
Soon -- Before very long, or at an early date.
There -- At that place.
Away -- To another place.
Abroad -- To (in) a foreign country.
Exercise 13.
Pick out the Adverb Phrases in the following sentences:-
1. She lived in the middle of a great wood.
2. Nothing can live on the moon.
3. Come into the garden, Maud.
4. Three fishers went sailing over the sea.
5. O'er her hangs the great dark bell.
6. Down in a green and shady bed, a modest violet grew.
7. On your conscience this will lie.
8. They sat for a while on the bank.
9. Honesty is written on his face.
10. The gun went off with a loud report.
11. There dwelt a miller hale and bold, beside the river Dee.
12. I stood on the bridge at midnight.
13. To the northward stretched the desert.
14. Beside a green meadow a stream used to flow.
15. I have read Bacon to my great profit.
16. In her ear he whispers gaily.
17. Beside the ungathered rice he lay.
18. They fought to the last man.
19. He persevered in the face of all obstacles.
20. The shoe is pressing on my toe.
21. Keep him at arm's length.
22. Make yourself at home.
23. It must be done at any price.
24. Pauperism increases at a fearful rate.
25. He has painted him in his proper colours.
26. He has his finger on the pulse of the nation.
27. He lives by his pen.
28. The shepherd shouted lo them at the top of his voice.
29. He strove with all his might to escape.
30. Without pausing to consider, he struck the blow.
31. Much water has run under the bridge since then.
Exercise 14.
In each of the following sentences replace the Adverb in italics by an Adverb Phrase of
the same meaning:-
1. The pigeon flies swiftly.
2. Did Rama behave well?
3. Go away.
4. The dying man replied feebly.
5. Gently fell the rain.
6. We will pitch the tents just here.
7. He expects to get promotion soon.
8. He built his house yonder.
9. They have only recently arrived.
10. Although hungry, the soldiers worked cheerfully.
11. He spoke eloquently.
12. Soon the sun will set.
13. Do your work thoroughly.
14. They were hurrying homeward.
15. The door was suspiciously open.
16. Formerly he worked at the School of Economics.
17. He tried hard.
Exercise 15.
Replace each of the following Adverb Phrases by an Adverb of the same meaning:-
1. The bodies were mangled in a terrible manner.
2. Let us cease work from this very truthfulness.
3. It was just on this spot that he died.
4. The child replied with perfect
5. He arrived at that moment.
6. I hope that he will come at a very early date.
7. He seems to have acted with great promptitude.
8. No one would dare to answer him in an impudent way.
9. I accept your statement without reserve.
10. I thank you with all my heart.
11. He succeeded in the long run.
12. He is ignorant to a proverb.
13. The post-boy drove with fierce carrier.
14. He has been painted in his proper colours.
15. The wind blew with great violence.
16. He has proved his case to my satisfaction.
Note:- Not all Adverb Phrases can be replaced by Adverbs. For instance:-
I took him on the strength of your recommendation.
Exercise 16.
Fill in the blanks with suitable Adverb Phrases:-
1. The knight fought ---.
2. The Rajah treated his vizier ---.
3. The woodman struck the wolf ---.
4, Do not answer ---.
5. I agree ---.
6. He has behaved ---.
7. He does his homework ---.
8. He treated his relatives ---.
9. The police handled the bombs ---.
10. The sailor climbed ---.
11. That happened ---.
12. He reached school ---.
13. He does his homework ---.
14. He failed ---.
15. Old Mother Hubbard went ---.
Exercise 17.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Phrases.
18. Compare:-
1. The crowd in the bazaar was very noisy.
2. The crowd halted in the bazaar.
In sentence 1, the phrase in the bazaar tells us which crowd was very noisy; that is, it
qualifies the noun crowd. It is therefore an Adjective Phrase.
In sentence 2, the phrase in the bazaar tells us where the crowd halted; that is, it modifies
the verb halted. It is therefore an Adverb Phrase.
Hence we see that the same phrase may be an Adjective Phrase in one sentence and an
Adverb Phrase in another sentence.
We cannot say what kind of Phrase a given Phrase is until we examine the work which it
does in a sentence.
Exercise 18.
Say which of the following are Adverb Phrases and which are Adjective Phrases:-
1. Have you heard of the man in the moon?
2. How could a man be in the moon?
3. They live on an island.
4. A house on an island was washed away.
5. Awful is the gloom beneath her.
6. Then why did she look beneath her?
7. Is this the train to Peshawar?
8. It usually goes to Peshawar, Sir.

Exercise 19.
Use the following phrases in sentences:-
In a loud voice; without further delay; with one voice; for certain; just in time; up in
arms; of no consequence; out of fashion; with great satisfaction; in the twinkling of an
eye; on either side of the street; in a shady nook; to the last man; with a smile; at sixes
and sevens; at the eleventh hour; on the top of the hill; in future; at nine o'clock.
III. Noun Phrases
19. Examine the following sentences:-
1. The boy wants something.
2. The boy wants to go home.
The word something is a Noun and it is the Object of the verb wants, in sentence 1.
Similarly the group of words, to go home, is the Object of the verb wants, in sentence 2.
Hence this group of words does the work of a Noun. The group of words, to go home, is
therefore a Noun Phrase.
Def:- A Noun Phrase is a group of words that does the work of a Noun.
Further examples of Noun Phrases:-
Early to bed is a good maxim.
He hopes to win the first prize.
We enjoy playing cricket.
He loves to issue harsh orders.
Did you enjoy reading this book?
I tried to get the sum right.
To win a prize is my ambition.
Standing about in a cold wet wind did me no good.
Exercise 20.
Pick out the Noun Phrases in the following sentences:-
1. His father wished to speak to the Headmaster.
2. The wicked vizier loves getting people into trouble.
3. The poor debtor intended to pay back every penny of the money.
4. He dislikes having to punish his servants.
5. Horses prefer living in dark stables.
6. I should hate to do such a thing.
7. Have you ever tried climbing a coconut palm?
8. Thinking good thoughts precedes good actions.
9. He refuses to answer the question.
10. To write such rubbish is disgraceful.
11. Promise to come again.
12. Why do you like visiting such a man?
13. Travelling in a hot dusty train gives me no pleasure.
14. He denies stealing the money,
15. Your doing such a thing surprises me.
Exercise 21.
Supply a Noun Phrase:-
1. I want ---.
2. --- delights me.
3. We all hope ---.
4. Pretend ---.
5. --- seems dishonest.
6. --- surprised my mother.
7. Do you wish ---?
8. My father hates ---.
9. --- gives me no pleasure.
10. I don't intend ---.
11. --- is not easy.
12. I do not expect ---.
13. I enjoy ---.
14. He wishes ---.
15. Cats like ---.
16. His father promised ---.
Exercise 22.
Pick out the Phrases and say whether they are Adjective Phrases, Adverb Phrases, or
Noun Phrases:-
1. He speaks like a born orator.
2. It grieved me to hear of your illness.
3. Beyond a doubt this man is honest.
4. He failed in spite of his best efforts.
5. He won the prize by means of trickery.
6. Do not talk like that.
7. I have forgotten how to play this game.
8. He gained their affection in spite of many faults.
9. I do not expect such treatment at your hands.
10. He speaks too fast to be understood.
11. 1 do not know what to do.
12. I do not understand how to solve this problem.
13. He persevered amidst many difficulties.
14. He succeeded in the long run.
15. Birds of a feather flock together.
16. This is a matter of no importance.
17. The train is behind time.
18. He is a man of means.
19. It lies near his heart,
20. He keeps the necklace under lock and key.
21. He is a person of no importance.
22. I want to go to the cinema to-day.
23. I love to hear the watch-dog's honest bark.
24. I did it of my own free will.
25. Show me how to do it,
26. His car ran over a dog.
27. Things are in a bad way.
28. She is a woman of wonderful patience.
29. I have found the key to his secret.
30. The plan has the virtue of committing us to nothing.
31. I don't see the point of the story.
32. How to find the way to the ruins is the question.
33, Tubal Cain was a man of might.
34. He did it against his will.
35. I have no time to waste on trifles.
36. Don't do things by halves.

37. I enjoy walking in the fields.