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Showing posts with label SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. Show all posts

Tuesday, January 11, 2011


Altimeter: an apparatus used in aircraft for measuring altitudes.
Ammeter: is used for to measure intensity of sound.
Anemometer: is an instrument for measuring the force and velocity of wind.
Audiometer: an instrument to measure intensity of sound.
Audiophone: is an instrument required for improving imperfect sense of hearing.
Barograph: for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.
Barometer: is an apparatus used for measuring the atmospheric pressure.
Binoculars: is an instrument used for seeing distant objects, the rays of light are twice reflected by means of right-angled prisms.
Callipers: a compass with legs for measuring the inside or outside diameter of bodies.
Calorimeter: an instrument used for measuring quantities of heat.
Carburettor: is an apparatus for charging air with petrol vapours in an internal combustion engine.
Cardiogram: a medical instrument used for tracing the movements of the heart.
Cardiograph: is a medical instrument for tracing heart movements.
Chronometer: is an instrument kept on board the ships for measuring accurate time.
Cinematograph: It consists of a series of lenses arranged to throw on a screen an enlarged image of photographs. The lens system which forms the image on the screen is termed the focusing lens.
Commutator: split ring which forms the main part of a D.C. Dynamo.
Compass needle: for knowing approximately the North-South direction at a place.
Crescograph: is an instrument for use in recording growth of plants; invented by J.C. Bose.
Dip Circle: It is an instrument used to determine the angle between the direction of the resultant intensity of earth’s field and the horizontal component at a place. This particular angle is know as the dip of that place.
Drinker’s apparatus: to help breathing in infantile paralysis.
Dynamo: The origin of electricity in a Dynamo is the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy. It depends on the principle of electro-magnetic induction whereby a current is produced on traversing a magnetic field.
Electroencephalograph (EEG): It is the technique of recording and interpreting the electrical activity of the brain. Records of the electrical activity of the brain, commonly known as “brain waves”, are called electroencephalograms or electroencephalographs. EEG is the common abbreviation for both the technique and the records.
Epidiascope: for projecting films as well as images of opaque articles on a screen.
Eudiometer: It is a glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical reactions between gases.
Fathometer: is an instrument used for measuring depth of the ocean.
Galvanometer: an instrument for measuring currents of small magnitude.
G.M. Counter (Geiger Muller Counter): This special device is used for detecting the presence of radiation and counting certain atomic particles.
Gramophone: an instrument with which we can reproduce the sound recorded by a suitable recording apparatus. It is fitted with a special type of apparatus known as sound box invented by Berliner.
Gravimeter: is an instrument for recording measurement under water and to determine the presence of oil deposits under water.
Gyroscope: is an instrument used to illustrate dynamics of rotating bodies. It is a type of spinning wheel fixed to the axle.
Hydrometer: is an instrument used for measuring the specific gravity of liquids.
Hydrophone: is an instrument used for recording sound under water.
Hygrometer: is an instrument used for measuring humidity in air.
Kymograph: is an instrument used to record graphically various physiological movements i.e., blood pressure, heart beating, study of lungs etc in living beings.
Lactometer: is an apparatus used for measuring the purity of milk.
Manometer: for determining the pressure of a gas.
Mariner’s Compass: is an apparatus which is used to guide the sailors. The needle always points north-south.
Micrometer: is an instrument used for converting sound i.e., fraction of the lowest division of a given scale.
Microphone: is an instrument used for converting sound waves into electrical vibrations.
Microscope: is an instrument which is used for magnifying minute objects by a lens system.
Microtome: is used for cutting an object into thin parts for microscopic inspection.
Odometer: is an instrument by virtue of which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is recorded.
Periscope: It is usually used by the crew of a submarine to survey the ships etc, on the surface of the sea while the submarine is under water. It also enables the sailors to observe objects on the other side of an obstacle without exposing themselves.
Phonograph: is an instrument used for reproducing sound.
Photometer: is an apparatus used to compare the illuminating power of two sources of light.
Pipette: It is a glass tube with the aid of which a definite volume of liquid may be transferred.
Potentiometer: is used for comparing the e.m.f.s, of cells, measurements of the thermal e.m.f.s, large potential differences and currents. It is also used for measuring low resistances.
Psychrometer: is an instrument for measurement of the humidity of the atmosphere.
Pyrometer: is an instrument for recording high temperatures from a great distance (i.e., for recording temperature of the sun etc.) by making use of the laws of radiation.
Radar: Radio, Angle, Detection And Range is used to detect the direction and range of an approaching aeroplane by means of radio microwaves.
Rain Gauge: is an apparatus for recording of rainfall at a particular place.
Radiometer: is an instrument for measuring the emission of radiant energy.
Refractometer: is an instrument to measure refractive indices.
Saccharimeter: is an instrument for determining the amount of sugar in a solution. It is used in breweries.
Seismometer or Seismograph: is an instrument used for recording earthquake shocks.
Sextant: is an instrument invented by John Hadley used for measuring the altitude of the sun and of other inaccessible heavenly bodies.
Spectrometer: (1) It is a type of spectroscope suitable for the precise measurements of refractive indices. (2) An instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.
Speedometer: is an instrument which indicates speed at which a vehicle is moving.
Spherometer: is an instrument for measuring curvature of surfaces.
Sphygmomanometer: an instrument used for measuring arterial blood-pressure.
Sphygmophone: an instrument, with the help of which a pulse beat makes a sound.
Sphygmoscope: an instrument, by virtue of which, arterial pulsations become visible.
Stereoscope: It is a special type of binocular, through which a double photograph snapped from two different angles by a two-lensed camera is viewed in solid relief.
Stethoscope: is an instrument to hear and analyse movements of heart and lungs.
Stop watch: for recording small intervals of time in the laboratory, in races and other events.
Stroboscope: is an instrument for viewing objects moving rapidly with a periodic motion and to see them as if they were at rest.
Tachometer: is an instrument for determining speeds of aeroplanes and motor boats.
Telephone: a device by virtue of which two persons at two different places can communicate. It consists of two main parts (i) a microphone and (ii) a receiver.
Teleprinter: an instrument which prints automatically messages sent from one place to another, on telegraph lines.
Telescope: is an apparatus used for observing distant objects.
Theodolite: is an instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.
Thermocouple: an instrument based on thermo-electricity used for measuring temperatures.
Thermometer: is an apparatus used for measuring temperature.
Thermostat: It is an instrument used to regulate the temperature to a particular degree.
Viscometer: is an instrument to measure viscosity.

Sunday, January 2, 2011


MEANING AND SCOPE OF HOME SCIENCEAccording to the layman, Home Science is a subject about household chores meant to be studied by girls only. Actually Home Science is a well developed discipline of study. It does not limit itself to the mastery of home related skills of cooking, laundry, decoration, stitching etc. Being fairly broad based, a closer look will reveal that it prepares the students not just for taking care of their homes and family, but also prepare them for a large variety of careers and vocations both in wage employment and self employment. Home Science is an interdisciplinary field of knowledge with focus on Food & Nutrition, Fabric & Apparel Designing, Human Development, Resource Management and Communication & Extension. A study of home science opens up a large numbers of employment opportunities and avenues both by the way of wage employment.
Wage employment means that one works for another person or organization and receive wages or salary for services.

Self employment means that the individual is the owner of the enterprise. Lets us now take a look at the various job opportunities available under each of the vocational areas related to home science.

  • Teaching: In almost all schools, Home Science and Home Science related activities are taught for which teachers with educational background of home Science are required, Home Science teachers are required in schools and degree colleges. Besides this Home Science education background also required for polytechnics, Industrial Training Institutes, Institutes, Institutes, Institutes of hotel Management and Catering etc. Training centers of anganwadi workers and other community workers also require teachers from field of Home Science. To run hobby classes or teach small groups in all vocational areas of home Science.
  • Preschools and Creches: Women participating in income generation activity outside the home has led to the need of child care outside the family. Children usually require care by adults till they are are 12 year of age and should not be left alone at home with the basic knowledge of Child Development, the Home Science graduates can run childhood care units like day-care centre, creches, nursery school and after school centres.There are a large no of jobs in his area.
Wage Employment Anganwadi worker/Supervisor
  • Balwadi worker/Manager
  • Nursery or Preschool Teacher
  • Nursery school supervisor or principal
Self- Employment Creches or day care centre
  • Nursery Schools or pre Schools

  • Catering: Catering could be provided to fulfill needs of the society. Service could be extended for parties arranged at home. The trained professionals can also undertake catering services for people who are working in factories, offices and do not have time or arrangement to cook meals, particularly unit day meals.
Wage Employment Cook
  • Waiter/ Waitress
  • Manager
Self- Employment Canteen
  • Cafeteria
  • Restaurant
  • Tea Shop
  • Contact Catering Services
  • Mobile Catering Service
  • Food Preservation: Preservation of vegetables and fruits in the form of pickles, jams jellies, marmalades etc. could be undertaken. It is a one of the major areas for employment and it offers the following jobs:
Wage Employment Production Supervisor/Manager
  • Production Assistant
  • Quality Control Assistant
  • Instructor of the community Canning centre
  • Incharge of the community Canning Centre
  • Laboratory assistant in the community Canning centre
Self- Employment Production unit of processed foods
  • Hobby Classes
  • Bakery and Confectionery: The Home Science students can set up confectionery, Ice-cream Parlours and Bakery. They can use innovation skills to develop new product with high nutritive value. It offers following jobs:
Wage Employment Worker in a bakery
  • Supervisor in a bakery
Self- Employment Owner of a bakery
  • Hobby Classes
  • Social Work: Home Science students study a subject Extension Education which creates new oppurnity of employment in social work and community programme. They can be social workers, research assistant. They also work with any institute which are working for women, child, old people, youth, drug addicts and alcoholics welfare.
  • Interior Decoration: Home Science students also study a subject Resource Management which undertakes the study of managing the home economically and effectively. Its also cover the interior decoration. Its gives a training to students about it. It offers following jobs.
Wage Employment Interior Designer
  • Furniture Designer
  • Furniture maker
Self- Employment Interior Designer
  • Furniture Designer
  • Furniture maker
  • Textile Designing: Textile Designing implies weaving, dyeing, printing etc of textiles. Wage employment can be carried out by a person in his own factory/ shop/ production unit or he may be employed by someone. Organizing hobby classes in tie and die, batik, fabric painting etc is an avenue of self-employment.
  • Garment Designing and Making: It is also broad area of Home Science for employment opportunities. It offers following jobs:
Wage Employment Manager
  • Production Assistant
  • Pattern maker
  • Cutter
  • Supervisor
  • Dress designer
Self- Employment Tailor
  • Dress Designer
  • Finisher
  • Boutique owner
  • Garment decorator
  • Hobby Classes
-Ms. Gauri Pandey, Aligarh.
M. Sc. (Home Science doing P. hd.)
Research Scholler, AMU